Looking at your answers to your pre-writing questions, you can start to plan how you will put together your piece. Just like a written essay, you will need and introduction, body, and conclusion. You may want to think of this as a story with a beginning, middle and end. Before you start to gather images, you might want to make a rough outline of how you want your essay to come together.
Title: Often your claim question can be your title, or you may want a single word or short phrase title that tells your subject and use your question in the opening. The font, animation and color will set the tone of your piece, so spend some time trying out different styles to see what you like best.
Introduction: How will you interest your viewer? Your first few images need to tell the viewer the subject and the question and grab their attention.
Body: How will you present your thesis? Will you tell it in a voice over? Write it on a picture or on a screen by itself? Would it be more effective to tell your main reasons first and then put your main idea at the end in the conclusion?
What types of images could help you to prove your main reasons for your claim? Remember that it is usually important to order your ideas from least to most important, so put your best reasons last. You might want to make a list of the types of images you want. Be sure to indicate any images you already have.
Conclusion: What do you want your audience to think, do, or believe after they have watched your essay? How will you draw the audience with you to believe your claim at the end? Will you use a specific image? A repeated idea? A quote? A challenge? A question?
Macbeth is a 2015 British-French film tragedy based on William Shakespeare's play of the same name. The film was directed by Justin Kurzel from a screenplay adapted by Jacob Koskoff, Todd Louiso, and Michael Lesslie. It stars Michael Fassbender in the title role and Marion Cotillard as Lady Macbeth.
The film was theatrically released on 2 October 2015 in the United Kingdom and on 4 December 2015 in the United States. It was selected to compete for the Palme d'Or at the 2015 Cannes Film Festival and received generally positive reviews from film critics who praised Fassbender's performance, as well as those of the rest of the cast, the visual style, the script, the direction and the war sequences. Despite the positive critical reaction, the film was a commercial failure, grossing $16 million worldwide against its production budget of $20 million.
The film starts with the funeral of Macbeth and Lady Macbeth's child, with both parents grieving for their loss (a scene not in the original play).
Macbeth, who supports King Duncan in the civil war, is leading royal troops into a final battle. Macbeth emerges victorious, but there are heavy losses, including many boy soldiers. The battle is observed by three women with a small girl and an infant. They approach Macbeth and Banquo, hailing Macbeth as Thane of Cawdor and future King, and Banquo as a father of Kings, before disappearing in the mist.
Elsewhere, Duncan hears about Macbeth's victory and is brought the Thane of Cawdor who, deemed to be a traitor because he has allied himself with the Norse invaders, is stripped of his title and executed. The King orders his servants to take the title of Thane of Cawdor to Macbeth, who reacts uncertainly. Macbeth sends a message ahead to his wife, Lady Macbeth, telling her about the witches' prophecies. Lady Macbeth then prays to the dark spirits in the village church, asking them for guidance. When Macbeth and his soldiers return, and her husband tells Lady Macbeth that Duncan will stay one night as their guest, she urges Macbeth to kill the King to fulfill the prophecy made by the witches. Duncan arrives at the village and a feast is being held, where the King pronounces Malcolm as his heir. Macbeth still hesitates and Lady Macbeth persuades him to commit the deed, while she slips a sleeping potion to the King's servants. After the feast ends, Macbeth sees a ghost of one of the boy soldiers who had been killed during the battle who gives him a dagger and leads him towards Duncan's tent. Macbeth brutally slays Duncan. Malcolm enters the tent and, seeing what Macbeth has done, flees in fear. Shaken, Macbeth goes to his wife and gives her the dagger he has used to kill the King. Lady Macbeth rebukes him, saying that he should have left it in the tent and she goes herself to place the dagger in the hands of the sleeping chamberlains. Later she meets Macbeth in the church where they both wash the blood from their hands and she tells him that the water has washed their deed away.
In the morning, Macduff enters the tent to wake Duncan, only to discover that he is dead. Macbeth slaughters the sleeping servants to prevent their denial of the murder. Macduff and Lennox, a Scottish noble, discuss that as Malcolm has fled to England that puts him under suspicion of being involved in the murder. They also admire Macbeth's justice on the supposedly-treacherous servants in the rightful fit of anger. With Malcolm gone, Macbeth is asked to become King of Scotland. After the coronation he sits in a sour mood in his chamber where Lady Macbeth comes to him. He complains that killing Duncan was for nothing as Macbeth has no heirs to inherit the crown which will pass to Banquo and his son, Fleance, according to the prophecy. He invites Banquo with his son to a banquet and finds out that they both plan to leave. As Banquo is becoming suspicious, Macbeth sends three assassins to murder him. Banquo is killed, but Fleance escapes to the woods.
During the evening, Macbeth makes a comment about Banquo not keeping his promise to be at the feast. When the assassins arrive, Macbeth asks if they have succeeded and is enraged when he finds out that Fleance has escaped. Then Macbeth sees Banquo's ghost in his armour standing among other guests next to the table. Macbeth is afraid and starts to talk to the ghost which is unseen by anyone else present. Lady Macbeth tries to calm everyone by claiming that her husband is unwell, but Macbeth continues to rave, which prompts Macduff and his wife to leave the feast despite the King ordering them to stay. Lady Macbeth dismisses all the guests and takes Macbeth back to their chamber.
Macbeth travels by night to talk to the three witches. Once he finds them, they show him a vision of slain soldiers who tell him to beware of Macduff, and that Macbeth shall be King until Great Birnam Wood comes to Dunsinane Hill, where the royal castle is built. Finally, the ghost of the slain boy soldier who gave him the dagger tells Macbeth that he won't be slain by any man born of a woman. The King is found wandering the hills by Lennox who tells him that Macduff has fled to England. Anxious at this, in a fit of rage, Macbeth orders Macduff's family and servants to be killed. Lady Macduff and her children are captured and burned at the stake, while a distraught Lady Macbeth watches the execution. After the burning she takes out the dagger that was used to kill Duncan and repeatedly washes it.
Meanwhile, Macduff meets up with Malcolm, who is gathering troops in England to march on Scotland. Ross and Angus inform Macduff about the murder of his family and servants. Stricken with grief and anger, Macduff swears revenge and both he and Malcolm (who supports Macduff) join forces to challenge Macbeth.
Haunted by guilt, Lady Macbeth returns to the church in her village, which is now abandoned, and laments the terrible deeds that have been done, and how her hands are covered in blood. She then sees the ghost of her dead child, which she urges to go to bed. Then she wanders in the hills and sees the three witches as she walks towards them.
In the castle, rumours spread that Macbeth has gone mad and his subjects fear his anger and tyrannical behaviour. Macbeth is told that his wife is dead. Saying "tomorrow and tomorrow and tomorrow", he then lifts her body and carries it around the chamber in despair. Seyton then brings him news that Malcolm is leading an army against him and Macbeth orders his armour to be brought to him.
Macduff sets Birnam Wood on fire, with the smoke and ashes blowing towards the castle, seemingly making the witches' prophecy come true. Macbeth leaves the castle to face the attacking army and engages in a duel with Macduff. Macbeth is confident that he will win as "no man born of woman" can kill him. Macduff then tells him that he was untimely ripped from his mother's womb and, using Macbeth's distraction, he stabs him. Macbeth starts to regret the mistakes he has made through his tyranny, despite knowing all too well that it's too late to redeem himself. Rather than surrendering, Macbeth refuses to accept defeat and to bow down before Malcolm. As soon as he finishes making his final speech to Macduff, Macbeth allows himself to be fatally stabbed by his nemesis. The three witches, who were observing the battle, leave when Macbeth dies on the battlefield. Immediately after Macbeth's death, Malcolm is hailed King of Scotland and he, Macduff and their forces abandon Macbeth's corpse and make their way to his castle.
Malcolm leaves the throne room while Fleance takes Macbeth's sword and charges through the empty battlefield, disappearing into the smoke.
The production company behind Macbeth is See-Saw Films; the film was distributed by StudioCanal worldwide.
Principal photography took place over seven weeks in England and Scotland, beginning on 6 February 2014 in Scotland. On 21 February, filming took place at Hankley Common in Elstead, Surrey. On 26 February, the cast and crew were spotted on set at Bamburgh Castle in Northumberland with almost 200 extras. Other locations used include Quiraing in Skye, and Ely Cathedral in Ely, Cambridgeshire.
Interior of Ely Cathedral.
Costume designer Jacqueline Durran was in charge of the costumes for the film. Durran took reference from a book called the Tilke, which is a sort of encyclopaedia of folk costume, compiled and illustrated in the 1920s by a German artist and ethnographer, Max Tilke.
A couple of photos from the film were revealed on 18 April 2014, followed by two teaser posters on 14 May. The first trailer was released by StudioCanal on 4 June 2015 and crossed over 2 million views.
Character posters featuring Fassbender and Cotillard were released on 27 August 2015. The first North American trailer was released by The Weinstein Company on 1 September 2015. A new pair of posters were released on 4 September 2015. In the Philippines, the film was marketed as Macbeth: Warrior King.
In October 2013, The Weinstein Company acquired distribution rights to the film.Macbeth premiered at the 2015 Cannes Film Festival on 23 May and was released in the United Kingdom on 2 October 2015. The film had a limited release in the United States across five theatres in New York, Los Angeles and San Francisco on 4 December 2015, before expanding theatres on 11 December. The film was released in the Philippines by Pioneer Films on 13 January 2016.
Macbeth has received positive reviews from critics. The review aggregatorRotten Tomatoes, which collects and compares reviews, the film has an approval rating of 80%, based on 167 reviews, with an average rating of 7.3/10. The site's critical consensus reads, "Faithful to the source material without sacrificing its own cinematic flair, Justin Kurzel's Macbeth rises on the strength of a mesmerizing Michael Fassbender performance to join the upper echelon of big-screen Shakespeare adaptations."Metacritic gives the film a weighted average score of 71 out of 100, based on 35 critics, indicating "generally favorable reviews".
Writing for The New York Times on 3 December 2015, Manohla Dargis complimented Fassbender's depiction of the lead role, stating:
Kenneth Tynan once wrote that 'nobody has ever succeeded as Macbeth' because the character shrinks from a complex figure into a cowering thug. The exception, Tynan continued, immediately contradicting his claim, was Laurence Olivier, who in a 1955 production 'shook hands with greatness.' With his Macbeth, Mr. Fassbender, who routinely shakes hands with greatness in films that don't remotely do the same, produces a man whose anguish eventually becomes a powerful counterpoint to his deeds, partly because he's already dead by the time he utters his first word. Mr. Fassbender gives you a reason to see this Macbeth, although the writing isn't bad, either.
Cotillard's performance also earned high praise from critics, particularly for her rendition of the famous "Out, Damned Spot" monologue. Guy Lodge from Variety stated that "Cotillard electrically conveys misdirected sexual magnetism, but also a poignantly defeated sense of decency", and noted that it was a performance that "contains both the woman's abandoned self and her worst-case incarnation, often in the space of a single scene," and remarked that "Her deathless sleepwalking scene, staged in minimalist fashion under a gauze of snowflakes in a bare chapel, is played with tender, desolate exhaustion; it deserves to be viewed as near-definitive."
Luke Buckmaster of The Daily Review rated the film four out of five stars, calling it "bold" and "fearless" and praising the production values as well as Fassbender and Cotillard's performances, but criticised the actors' poor enunciation or peculiar accents, which distracted from the film's other qualities.
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