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Licensed to: iChapters UserChemical Principles in the Laboratory, © 2009, 2005 Brooks/Cole, Cengage LearningNinth EditionEmil J. Slowinski and Wayne C. Wolsey ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. No part of this work covered by the copyright herein may be reproduced, transmitted, stored, or used in any form or byAcquisitions Editor: Lisa Lockwood any means graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including but not limited toDevelopment Editor: Brandi Kirksey photocopying, recording, scanning, digitizing, taping, Web distribution,Editorial Assistant: Elizabeth Woods information networks, or information storage and retrieval systems, except asTechnology Project Manager: Lisa Weber permitted under Section 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act,Marketing Manager: Amee Mosley without the prior written permission of the publisher.Marketing Assistant: Elizabeth WongMarketing Communications Manager: For product information and technology assistance, contact us at Cengage Learning Customer & Sales Support, 1-800-354-9706. Talia WiseProject Manager, Editorial Production: For permission to use material from this text or product, submit all requests online at cengage.com/permissions. Michelle ColeCreative Director: Rob Hugel Further permissions questions can be e-mailed toArt Director: John Walker firstname.lastname@example.org.Print Buyer: Rebecca CrossPermissions Editor: Bob Kauser Library of Congress Control Number: 2008922451Production Service: ICC Macmillan Inc.Copy Editor: Richard Camp ISBN-13: 978-0-495-11288-4Cover Designer: Tessa AvilaCompositor: ICC Macmillan Inc. ISBN-10: 0-495-11288-7 Brooks/Cole 10 Davis Drive Belmont, CA 94002-3098 USA Cengage Learning is a leading provider of customized learning solutions with office locations around the globe, including Singapore, the United Kingdom, Australia, Mexico, Brazil, and Japan. Locate your local office at international.cengage.com/region. Cengage Learning products are represented in Canada by Nelson Education, Ltd. For your course and learning solutions, visit academic.cengage.com. Purchase any of our products at your local college store or at our preferred online store www.ichapters.com. About the cover: The picture on the cover is an enlarged image of a crystalline film of Anthradithiophene, used in making photovoltaic cells. It won a first prize in a “Science in Art” competition sponsored by the Materials Research Society, and was taken by Matthew Lloyd, a graduate student at Cornell University. It appeared in the May 14, 2007 issue of Chemical and Engineering News, a publication of the American Chemical Society.Printed in the United States of America1 2 3 4 5 6 7 11 10 09 08 Copyright 2009 Cengage Learning, Inc. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part.
Licensed to: iChapters User Experiment 1 The Densities of Liquids and Solids Given a sample of a pure liquid, we can measure many of its characteristics. Its temperature, mass, color, and volume are among the many properties we can determine. We find that, if we measure the mass and volume of different samples of the liquid, the mass and volume of each sample are related in a simple way; if we divide the mass by the volume, the result we obtain is the same for each sample, independent of its mass. That is, for samples A, B, and C, of the liquid at constant temperature and pressure, MassA/VolumeA = MassB/VolumeB = MassC/VolumeC = a constant That constant, which is clearly independent of the size of the sample, is called its density, and is one of the fundamental properties of the liquid. The density of water is exactly 1.00000 g/cm3 at 4°C, and is slightly less than one at room temperature (0.9970 g/cm3 at 25°C). Densities of liquids and solids range from values that are less than that of water to values that are much greater. Osmium metal has a density of 22.5 g/cm3 and is probably the densest material known at ordinary pressures. In any density determination, two quantities must be determined—the mass and the volume of a given quantity of matter. The mass can easily be determined by weighing a sample of the substance on a balance. The quantity we usually think of as “weight” is really the mass of a substance. In the process of “weighing” we find the mass, taken from a standard set of masses, that experiences the same gravitational force as that experienced by the given quantity of matter we are weighing. The mass of a sample of liquid in a container can be found by taking the difference between the mass of the container plus the liquid and the mass of the empty container. The volume of a liquid can easily be determined by means of a calibrated container. In the laboratory a graduated cylinder is often used for routine measurements of volume. Accurate measurement of liquid volume is made by using a pycnometer, which is simply a container having a precisely definable volume. The volume of a solid can be determined by direct measurement if the solid has a regular geometrical shape. Such is not usually the case, however, with ordinary solid samples. A convenient way to determine the volume of a solid is to measure accurately the volume of liquid displaced when an amount of the solid is immersed in the liquid. The volume of the solid will equal the volume of liquid which it displaces. In this experiment we will determine the density of a liquid and a solid by the procedure we have out- lined. First we weigh an empty flask and its stopper. We then fill the flask completely with water, measuring the mass of the filled stoppered flask. From the difference in these two masses we find the mass of water and then, from the known density of water, we determine the volume of the flask. We empty and dry the flask, fill it with an unknown liquid, and weigh again. From the mass of the liquid and the volume of the flask we find the density of the liquid. To determine the density of an unknown solid metal, we add the metal to the dry empty flask and weigh. This allows us to find the mass of the metal. We then fill the flask with water, leaving the metal in the flask, and weigh again. The increase in mass is that of the added water; from that increase, and the density of water, we calculate the volume of water we added. The volume of the metal must equal the volume of the flask minus the volume of water. From the mass and volume of the metal we calculate its den- sity. The calculations involved are outlined in detail in the Advance Study Assignment. Copyright 2009 Cengage Learning, Inc. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part.
Licensed to: iChapters User 2 Experiment 1 The Densities of Liquids and Solids Experimental Procedure A. Mass of a Coin After you have been shown how to operate the analytical balances in your laboratory, read the section on bal- ances in Appendix IV. Take a coin and measure its mass to 0.0001 g. Record the mass on the Data page. If your balance has a TARE bar, use it to re-zero the balance. Take another coin and weigh it, recording its mass. Remove both coins, zero the balance, and weigh both coins together, recording the total mass. If you have no TARE bar on your balance, add the second coin and measure and record the mass of the two coins. Then remove both coins and find the mass of the second one by itself. When you are satisfied that your results are those you would expect, go to the stockroom and obtain a glass-stoppered flask, which will serve as a pyc- nometer, and samples of an unknown liquid and an unknown metal. B. Density of a Liquid If your flask is not clean and dry, clean it with detergent solution and water, rinse it with a few cubic cen- timeters of acetone, and dry it by letting it stand for a few minutes in the air or by gently blowing compressed air into it for a few moments. Weigh the dry flask with its stopper on the analytical balance, or the toploading balance if so directed, to the nearest milligram. Fill the flask with distilled water until the liquid level is nearly to the top of the ground surface in the neck. Put the stopper in the flask in order to drive out all the air and any excess water. Work the stopper gently into the flask, so that it is firmly seated in position. Wipe any water from the outside of the flask with a towel and soak up all excess water from around the top of the stopper. Again weigh the flask, which should be completely dry on the outside and full of water, to the nearest milligram. Given the density of water at the temperature of the laboratory and the mass of water in the flask, you should be able to determine the volume of the flask very precisely. Empty the flask, dry it, and fill it with your unknown liquid. Stopper and dry the flask as you did when working with the water, and then weigh the stoppered flask full of the unknown liquid, making sure its surface is dry. This measurement, used in conjunc- tion with those you made previously, will allow you to find accurately the density of your unknown liquid. C. Density of a Solid Pour your sample of liquid from the flask into its container. Rinse the flask with a small amount of acetone and dry it thoroughly. Add small chunks of the metal sample to the flask until the flask is at least half full. Weigh the flask, with its stopper and the metal, to the nearest milligram. You should have at least 50 g of metal in the flask. Leaving the metal in the flask, fill the flask with water and then replace the stopper. Roll the metal around in the flask to make sure that no air remains between the metal pieces. Refill the flask if necessary, and then weigh the dry, stoppered flask full of water plus the metal sample. Properly done, the measurements you have made in this experiment will allow a calculation of the density of your metal sample that will be accurate to about 0.1%. DISPOSAL OF REACTION PRODUCTS. Pour the water from the flask. Put the metal in its container. Dry the flask and return it with its stopper and your metal sample, along with the sample of unknown liquid, to the stockroom. Copyright 2009 Cengage Learning, Inc. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part.
Licensed to: iChapters User Name ____________________________________ Section _________________________________ Experiment 1 Data and Calculations: The Densities of Liquids and Solids A. Mass of coin 1 ____________ g Mass of coin 2 ____________ g Mass of coins 1 and 2 weighed together ____________ g What general law is illustrated by the results of this experiment?B. Density of unknown liquid ____________ g Mass of empty flask plus stopper ____________ g ____________ g Mass of stoppered flask plus water ____________ g ____________ °C Mass of stoppered flask plus liquid ____________ cm3 Mass of water ____________ g ____________ g/cm3 Temperature in the laboratory Volume of flask (density of H2O at 25°C, 0.9970 g/cm3; at ____________ 20°C, 0.9982 g/cm3) Mass of liquid Density of liquid To how many significant figures can the liquid density be properly reported? (See Appendix V.)C. Density of unknown metal ____________ g Mass of stoppered flask plus metal ____________ g Mass of stoppered flask plus metal plus water ____________ g Mass of metal ____________ g Mass of water ____________ cm3 Volume of water (continued on following page)Copyright 2009 Cengage Learning, Inc. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part.
Licensed to: iChapters User4 Experiment 1 The Densities of Liquids and Solids ____________ cm3 Volume of metal ____________ g/cm3 Density of metalTo how many significant figures can the density of the metal be ____________properly reported?Explain why the value obtained for the density of the metal is likely to have a larger percentage error thanthat found for the liquid.Unknown liquid no. ____________ Unknown solid no. ____________Copyright 2009 Cengage Learning, Inc. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part.
Licensed to: iChapters UserName ____________________________________ Section _________________________________Experiment 1Advance Study Assignment: Densities of Solids and LiquidsThe advance study assignments in this laboratory manual are designed to assist you in making the calculationsrequired in the experiment you will be doing. We do this by furnishing you with sample data and showing insome detail how that data can be used to obtain the desired results. In the advance study assignments we willoften include the guiding principles as well as the specific relationships to be employed. If you work throughthe steps in each calculation by yourself, you should have no difficulty when you are called upon to make thenecessary calculations on the basis of the data you obtain in the laboratory.1. Finding the volume of a flask. A student obtained a clean, dry glass-stoppered flask. She weighed the flask and stopper on an analytical balance and found the total mass to be 32.634 g. She then filled the flask with water and obtained a mass for the full stoppered flask of 59.479 g. From these data, and the fact that at the temperature of the laboratory the density of water was 0.9973 g/cm3, find the volume of the stoppered flask. a. First we need to obtain the mass of the water in the flask. This is found by recognizing that the mass of a sample is equal to the sum of the masses of its parts. For the filled stoppered flask: Mass of filled stoppered flask = mass of empty stoppered flask + mass of water, so mass of water = mass of filled flask – mass of empty flask Mass of water = ____________ g – ____________ g = ____________ g Many mass and volume measurements in chemistry are made by the method used in 1a. This method is called measuring by difference, and is a very useful one. b. The density of a pure substance is equal to its mass divided by its volume: Density = mass or volume = mass volume density The volume of the flask is equal to the volume of the water it contains. Since we know the mass and density of the water, we can find its volume and that of the flask. Make the necessary calculation. Volume of water = volume of flask = ____________ cm3 2. Finding the density of an unknown liquid. Having obtained the volume of the flask, the student emptied the flask, dried it, and filled it with an unknown whose density she wished to determine. The mass of the stoppered flask when completely filled with liquid was 50.376 g. Find the density of the liquid. a. First we need to find the mass of the liquid by measuring by difference: Mass of liquid = ____________ g – ____________ g = ____________ g (continued on following page)Copyright 2009 Cengage Learning, Inc. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part.
6 Experiment 1 The Densities of Liquids and Solids b. Since the volume of the liquid equals that of the flask, we know both the mass and volume of the liq- uid and can easily find its density using the equation in 1b. Make the calculation. Density of liquid = ____________ g/cm33. Finding the density of a solid. The student then emptied the flask and dried it once again. To the empty flask she added pieces of a metal until the flask was about half full. She weighed the stoppered flask and its metal contents and found that the mass was 152.047 g. She then filled the flask with water, stoppered it, and obtained a total mass of 165.541 g for the flask, stopper, metal, and water. Find the density of the metal. a. To find the density of the metal we need to know its mass and volume. We can easily obtain its mass by the method of differences: Mass of metal = ____________ g − ____________ g = ____________ g b. To determine the volume of metal, we note that the volume of the flask must equal the volume of the metal plus the volume of water in the filled flask containing both metal and water. If we can find the volume of water, we can obtain the volume of metal by the method of differences. To obtain the volume of the water we first calculate its mass: Mass of water = mass of (flask + stopper + metal + water) − mass of (flask + stopper + metal) Mass of water = ____________ g − ____________ g = ____________ g The volume of water is found from its density, as in 1b. Make the calculation. Volume of water = ____________ cm3 c. From the volume of the water, we calculate the volume of metal: Volume of metal = volume of flask − volume of water Volume of metal = ____________ cm3 − ____________ cm3 = ____________ cm3 From the mass of and volume of metal, we find the density, using the equation in 1b. Make the calculation. Density of metal = ____________ g/cm3 Now go back to Question 1 and check to see that you have reported the proper number of significantfigures in each of the results you calculated in this assignment. Use the rules on significant figures as givenin your chemistry text or Appendix V. Copyright 2009 Cengage Learning, Inc. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part.
С пистолетом в руке он рвался вперед, к тупику. Но Беккера там не оказалось, и он тихо застонал от злости. Беккер, спотыкаясь и кидаясь то вправо, то влево, продирался сквозь толпу. Надо идти за ними, думал. Они знают, как отсюда выбраться.